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Stack Exchange network consists of 174 QA communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

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As with most areas of communication, the Internet has hugely expanded the range of effective action available for readers to offer their feedback on scholarly works. Where before only formal routes like the letters to the journal or commentary articles offered readers a voice, now a multitude of channels exist. Journals are increasingly offering their own commentary sections. Walker and Rocha da Silva found that of 53 publishing venues reviewed, 24 provided facilities to enable user-comments on published articles – although these were typically not heavily used (Walker and Rocha da Silva, 2015). But users can “publish” their thoughts anywhere on the Web – via academic social networks like Mendeley , ResearchGate and, via Twitter , or on their own blogs. The reputation of a work hence undergoes continuous evolution as long as it remains the subject of discussion.

Improvements based on feedback happen most obviously in the case of so-called ‘living’ publications like the Living Reviews group of three disciplinary journals in the fields of relativity, solar physics and computational astrophysics, publishing invited review articles which allow authors to regularly update their articles to incorporate the latest developments in the field. But even where the published version is anticipated to be the final version, it remains open to future retraction or correction. These days such changes are fuelled by social media, as in the 2010 case of #arseniclife, where social media critique over flaws in the methodology of a paper claiming to show a bacterium capable of growing on arsenic resulted in retraction refutations being published in Science. The The Cheapest 2018 Unisex contrast stripe trim and flap detail top White Philosophy di Lorenzo Serafini Sast Sale Online dCisoRwBoa
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, which is proud to offer itself as a “post-publication peer review platform”. When its users swarmed to critique a Nature paper on STAP (Stimulus-Triggered Acqusition of Pluripotency) cells, PubPeer argued that its “post-publication peer review easily outperformed even the most careful reviewing in the best journal. The papers’ comment threads on PubPeer have attracted some 40000 viewers. It’s hardly suprising [sic] they caught issues that three overworked referees and a couple of editors did not. Science is now able to self-correct instantly. Post-publication peer review is here to stay” (PubPeer, 2014).

Open pre-review manuscripts and open final-version commenting are distinct phenomena. Open pre-review manuscripts help establish priority and get findings out early. Open final-version commenting, on the other hand, helps filter published articles via peer to peer recommendation and acts as a final watchdog to ensure that false findings can be corrected.

That the two get bundled together under the term PPPR is probably an artefact of confusion about the meaning of the legacy term “publishing”. When is a digital manuscript “published”? Is it just when it is first made “public”, including in that still malleable form that we call “pre-prints”? Or is “publication” that moment when a (presumed) “final” version of record appears, after peer-review, copy-editing and the rubber-stamp of the journal brand have been applied?

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Find out how your PSAT/NMSQT and PSAT10 scores are calculated and what those scores mean.

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Because there’s no penalty for guessing, your raw score is the number of questions you answered correctly. Raw scores are converted to scores on a scale of 160 to 760 using a process called equating . Equating adjusts for slight differences in difficulty between various versions of the test (such as versions taken on different days).

The College Board uses equating to make sure there’s no advantage in taking the test on a particular day. A score of 400, for instance, on one day’s test means the same thing as a 400 on a test taken on a different day—even though the questions are different.

Score ranges, mean (average) scores, benchmarks, and percentiles can be used to see if you’re on track for college readiness.

For the next few years, norm groups for the score ranges, mean scores, and percentiles described below will be derived from research data, not the prior year’s test-taking populations. A norm group, also called a reference population, is the group whose data your results are compared to.

Tests can't measure exactly what you know, and many factors can affect your score. After all, no two days are the same, and if you were to take the PSAT/NMSQT or PSAT 10 three times in a week or once a week for a month, your scores would vary.

That’s why it’s helpful to think of each score as a range that extends from a few points below to a few points above the score earned. Score ranges show how much your score might change with repeated testing, assuming that your skill level remains the same.

Your score report will show you the mean, or average, scores earned by typical U.S. test-takers per grade.Unless your score is much lower than average, you’re probably developing the kinds of reading, writing and language, and math skills you’ll need in college.

You’ll see a benchmark for each section of the PSAT/NMSQT and PSAT 10. Benchmarks are the scores that represent college readiness. In other words, if you score at or above the benchmark, you’re on track to be ready for college when you graduate high school.

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